ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

Effect of Wearable Technology on Metabolic Control and the Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Fatma Yeşil1, Çağrı Çövener Özçelik2
1Marmara University Institute of Health Sciences, İstanbul, Türkiye
2Department of Pediatric Nursing, Marmara University Faculty of Health Sciences, İstanbul, Türkiye
DOI : 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2024.2024-2-115
Pages : 261-271

Abstract

Background: Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. Wearable technology (insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring devices) that makes diabetes management relatively simple, in addition to education and follow-ups, enhances the quality of life and health of individuals with diabetes.
Aims: To evaluate the impact of wearable technology on metabolic management and the quality of life in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Methods: The Preferred Reporting System for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was used to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, Ulakbim and Google Scholar were searched in July 2022 and July 2023 using predetermined keywords. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute’s Critical Appraisal Checklists for randomized controlled experimental and cross-sectional studies. The meta-analysis method was used to pool the data.
Results: Eleven studies published between 2011 and 2022 were included. The total sample size of the included studies was 1,853. The meta-analysis revealed that the decrease in hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) level in those using wearable technology was statistically significant [mean difference (MD): -0.33, Z = 2.54, p = 0.01]. However, the technology had no effect on the quality of life [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.44, Z = 1.72, p = 0.09]. The subgroup analyses revealed that the decrease in the HbA1c level occurred in the cross-sectional studies (MD: -0.49, Z = 2.54, p = 0.01) and the 12-19 (MD = 0.59, Z = 4.40, p < 0.001) and 4-18 age groups (MD: -0.31, Z = 2.56, p = 0.01). The subgroup analyses regarding the quality of life revealed that there was no difference according to the research design. However, the quality of life was higher in the wearable technology group than in the control group in the 8-12 and 4-18 age groups (SMD: 1.32, Z = 2.31, p = 0.02 and SMD: 1.00, Z = 5.76, p < 0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: Wearable technology effectively reduces the HbA1c levels in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in some age groups. However, it does not affect the quality of life.

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