ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

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In a study from Denmark, total 2224 overweight individuals (1504 women, 720 men) followed a low-calorie diet (810 kcal/daily) for 8 weeks. The low-calorie diet induced different effects in women than in men, suggesting gender‐specific changes after weight loss. Body weight loss and reductions in a metabolic syndrome score, fat mass, and heart rate were more marked in men compared to women. However, reductions in HDL-cholesterol, hip circumference, lean body mass (or fat free mass), and pulse pressure were larger in women than in men. Source:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/dom.13466
Louisa Gibson and Melanie Porter from Australiaaimed to investigate whether drinking or smoking while breastfeeding lowers children’s cognitive scores. They analyzed the data obtained from 5107 Australian infants recruited in 2004 and assessed every 2 years. The authors observed that exposing infants to alcohol through breastmilk may cause dose-dependent reductions in their cognitive abilities. The reduction in cognitive abilities was observed at age 6 to 7 years but was not sustained at age 10 to 11 years. The authors stated that although the relationship is small, it may be clinically significant when mothers consume alcohol regularly or binge drink.  Source: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/142/2/e20174266
According to a meta-analysis performed by Clarke MA et al. 9% of women with postmenopausal bleeding have endometrial cancer. The authors analyzed data from 40790 unique patients in 129 studies published January 1, 1977, through January 31, 2017. They found that 90% of women with endometrial cancerhave postmenopausal bleeding; however, only 9% of women with postmenopausal bleeding were diagnosed with endometrial cancer.  Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2695509
In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study included a total of 50, 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, it was found that pregnant women with average (50–199 mg/day, 44%), high (≥200–299 mg/day, 7%) and very high (≥300 mg/day, 3%) caffeine intakes had an increased risk of their child experiencing excess growth in infancy compared with women with low caffeine intake (<50 mg/day, 46%). There was an association between in utero exposure to caffeine  and higher risk of overweight at age 3 years and 5 years, this association persisted at 8 years, only for very high exposures. The researchers concluded that "any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages."  Source:  http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/3/e018895
In a case-control study in older adults, it was observed a robust association between exposure to different classes of anticholinergic drugs and future dementia incidence.  The researchers used a large UK primary care database, Clinical Practice Research Datalink, and matched 40,770 older adults with a diagnosis of dementia to 283,933 controls without dementia. Until dementia diagnosis (4 to 20 years), an anticholinergic drug with a high anticholinergic burden (e.g., amitriptyline, paroxetine) were prescribed in 36% of cases and 30% of controls. It was found that increasing exposure to highly anticholinergic drugs was associated with increased dementia risk. The risk was highest with antidepressants, anti-Parkinson drugs, and urologic drugs. The researchers concluded that "Clinicians should continue to be vigilant with respect to the use of anticholinergic drugs, and should consider the risk of long term cognitive effects, as well as short term effects, associated with specific drug classes when performing their risk-benefit analysis." Source:  https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k1315
In a prospective study conducted on 104,980 participants aged at least 18 years from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2017), a significant increase in overall and breast cancer was associated with an increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet. Source: http://www.bmj.com/content/360/bmj.k322.long

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Feng Mei, Yanfeng Wu, Jin Wu
This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between exonic variant (rs4290270) in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene and primary insomnia and symptoms of depression in Han Chinese. It included 152 patients with primary insomnia and 164 age- and gender-matched normal controls. The genotype distributions of the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene polymorphism rs4290270 were…
Seniz Öngören, Ayşe Salihoğlu, Tuğçe Apaydın, et al.
This study includes a retrospective evaluation of vincristine use in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura treated in a tertiary referral center over a 16-year period with the aim of reviewing the efficacy and tolerability of vincristine. The medical records of all relapsed/refractory patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura treated with vincristine adjunct to therapeutic plasma exchange between October 2000 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed.
Fuat Bilgili, Yavuz Sağlam, Süleyman Bora Göksan, et al.
This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with type IIa hip dysplasia at a single institution from 2012 to 2014. All patients included in the study had hip ultrasonography at about 6 weeks and 3 months of age. The α and β angles were used as the main outcome measurements to evaluate hip maturation at the last follow-up. Sixty-four patients and 88 affected hips (63% unilateral and 37% bilateral) were included.
Ifeyinwa E. Obiorah, Alicia Henao Velasquez, Bhaskar Kallakury, et al.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as a bile duct mass is rare and usually occurs as part of a multiorgan system disease. A case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis confined to the extrahepatic bile duct in a 62-year-old female patient with sclerosing cholangitis was presented. The mass was composed of mononuclear cells with cleaved nuclei that were positive for CD68, S100, and CD1a as assessed by immunohistochemistry.
Umut Mousa, Hasan Sav, Osman Köseoğluları, et al.
The aim of this study was to analyze the urinary iodine concentration in a cohort of pregnant women in Northern Cyprus. 258 pregnant inhabitants in all trimesters were included between January and June 2016. The mean age of the study group was 28.62±5.8 years (17-46). The median (minimum-maximum) urinary iodine concentration was 110 (8-450) μg/L.

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A female newborn infant was born with a dorsal mass on her cervicothoracic region. The mass consisted of accessory partial and hypoplastic upper limbs completely covered with skin. The dorsal mass was approximately 10 cm in diameter and was associated with other anomalies...

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Google Analytic data of Balkan Medical Journal for last 30 days.
We, Editorial team of Balkan Medical Journal, are happy to announce the new policy (Sex/gender reporting) for Balkan Medical Journal (Kocak Z). As a result of this accepted policy, we decided to follow the SAGER guide (SAGER guideline). Authors are strongly recommended to use the terms sex (for reporting biological factors) and gender (for reporting identity, psychosocial, or cultural factors) correctly. We encourage all authors to analyze and report sex/gender differences in their research, where appropriate. Editors of Balkan Medical Journal are thrilled to be part of global efforts to improve the reporting and evaluation of sex and gender differences in scientific research. We hope that our editors, reviewers and authors will quickly adopt this guide and contribute to a better science and health outcome.