ISSN : 2146-3123
E-ISSN : 2146-3131

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In a study from Denmark, total 2224 overweight individuals (1504 women, 720 men) followed a low-calorie diet (810 kcal/daily) for 8 weeks. The low-calorie diet induced different effects in women than in men, suggesting gender‐specific changes after weight loss. Body weight loss and reductions in a metabolic syndrome score, fat mass, and heart rate were more marked in men compared to women. However, reductions in HDL-cholesterol, hip circumference, lean body mass (or fat free mass), and pulse pressure were larger in women than in men. Source:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/dom.13466
Louisa Gibson and Melanie Porter from Australiaaimed to investigate whether drinking or smoking while breastfeeding lowers children’s cognitive scores. They analyzed the data obtained from 5107 Australian infants recruited in 2004 and assessed every 2 years. The authors observed that exposing infants to alcohol through breastmilk may cause dose-dependent reductions in their cognitive abilities. The reduction in cognitive abilities was observed at age 6 to 7 years but was not sustained at age 10 to 11 years. The authors stated that although the relationship is small, it may be clinically significant when mothers consume alcohol regularly or binge drink.  Source: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/142/2/e20174266
According to a meta-analysis performed by Clarke MA et al. 9% of women with postmenopausal bleeding have endometrial cancer. The authors analyzed data from 40790 unique patients in 129 studies published January 1, 1977, through January 31, 2017. They found that 90% of women with endometrial cancerhave postmenopausal bleeding; however, only 9% of women with postmenopausal bleeding were diagnosed with endometrial cancer.  Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2695509
In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study included a total of 50, 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, it was found that pregnant women with average (50–199 mg/day, 44%), high (≥200–299 mg/day, 7%) and very high (≥300 mg/day, 3%) caffeine intakes had an increased risk of their child experiencing excess growth in infancy compared with women with low caffeine intake (<50 mg/day, 46%). There was an association between in utero exposure to caffeine  and higher risk of overweight at age 3 years and 5 years, this association persisted at 8 years, only for very high exposures. The researchers concluded that "any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages."  Source:  http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/3/e018895
In a case-control study in older adults, it was observed a robust association between exposure to different classes of anticholinergic drugs and future dementia incidence.  The researchers used a large UK primary care database, Clinical Practice Research Datalink, and matched 40,770 older adults with a diagnosis of dementia to 283,933 controls without dementia. Until dementia diagnosis (4 to 20 years), an anticholinergic drug with a high anticholinergic burden (e.g., amitriptyline, paroxetine) were prescribed in 36% of cases and 30% of controls. It was found that increasing exposure to highly anticholinergic drugs was associated with increased dementia risk. The risk was highest with antidepressants, anti-Parkinson drugs, and urologic drugs. The researchers concluded that "Clinicians should continue to be vigilant with respect to the use of anticholinergic drugs, and should consider the risk of long term cognitive effects, as well as short term effects, associated with specific drug classes when performing their risk-benefit analysis." Source:  https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k1315
In a prospective study conducted on 104,980 participants aged at least 18 years from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2017), a significant increase in overall and breast cancer was associated with an increase in the proportion of ultra-processed foods in the diet. Source: http://www.bmj.com/content/360/bmj.k322.long

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Zafer Koçak
We, the editorial team of Balkan Medical Journal, are happy to announce the new policy (sex and gender reporting) for Balkan Medical Journal. As a result of this accepted policy, we decided to follow the SAGER guidelines. Authors are strongly recommended to use the terms sex (for reporting biological factors) and gender (for reporting identity, psychosocial, or cultural factors) correctly. We encourage all authors to analyze and report sex and gender differences in their research, wherever appropriate.
Emre Ocak, Rebecca S. Eshraghi, Ali Danesh, et al.
Several studies confirm that most of the individuals with an autism spectrum disorder have some degree of sensory dysfunction related to disorders of processing auditory, visual, vestibular, and/or tactile stimuli. Among these studies, some have addressed central auditory processing disorders. Most of the studies investigating central auditory processing disorders in patients with autism spectrum disorders have used electrophysiological measurements such as mismatch negativity and P300 event-related potentials.
Arif Kalkanlı, Cem Tuğrul Gezmiş, Arif Özkan, et al.
Four hundred patients who underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy were recruited. Patients orally received either 750 mg ciprofloxacin 60 min before the procedure or 500 mg ciprofloxacin twice a day for a duration of 7 days with the initial dose administered 24 h prior to the procedure. All patients were followed-up for 4 weeks after the transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy procedure for infectious complications.
Chryssoula Staikou, Alexandros Μakris, Kassiani Theodoraki, et al.
The present survey was conducted in 2016 and its primary aim was to evaluate the application of regional techniques, in terms of frequency and popularity, for obstetric anesthesia/analgesia in Greek public hospitals and to identify any factors that may influence their use in daily clinical practice. A structured questionnaire was sent to 50 anesthesia departments in Greek public hospitals with obstetric units.
Amr Ahmed El-Arabey, Salama Abdu Salama, Adel Rashad Abd-Allah
Fanconi anemia is a complex genetic disorder caused due to a mutation in one of at least 21 Fanconi anemia genes and characterized by developmental abnormalities, congenital malformation, genomic instability, and predisposition to cancer. Recently, a novel originator for FANCA mutation has been identified in Romani patients living in the Balkan region.

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We, Editorial team of Balkan Medical Journal, are happy to announce the new policy (Sex/gender reporting) for Balkan Medical Journal (Kocak Z). As a result of this accepted policy, we decided to follow the SAGER guide (SAGER guideline). Authors are strongly recommended to use the terms sex (for reporting biological factors) and gender (for reporting identity, psychosocial, or cultural factors) correctly. We encourage all authors to analyze and report sex/gender differences in their research, where appropriate. Editors of Balkan Medical Journal are thrilled to be part of global efforts to improve the reporting and evaluation of sex and gender differences in scientific research. We hope that our editors, reviewers and authors will quickly adopt this guide and contribute to a better science and health outcome.
The 14th EASE Conference was held in Bucharest, Romania, 8-10 June, 2018 in partnership with the University of Bucharest. The theme for the event was “Balancing Innovation and Tradition in Science Editing”. There were 140 participants from all over the World. Twenty-one editors attended this conference from Turkey. Balkan Medical Journal was represented by ten editors. Three presentations were made by Balkan Medical Journal Editors. Professor Uzun made two speeches titled “Editing small scientific journals in local, regional, or English languages: Experience of Trakya University Journals” and “Improving your journal: teamwork experience of a small medical journal”. Prof Erdag made a speech under the title of “The pros and cons of bilingual publication”. Six of twelve posters presented at the conference were from Trakya University. The Balkan Medical Journal was represented on two posters of Professor Koçak and Professor Uzun; “Assessment of scientific indicators of general medicine journals in the Balkan Region”(Zafer Kocak & Necdet Sut) and “Can individual back-translation with or without copyediting avoid technical plagiarism? A study with Turkish medical authors”(Cem Uzun, Ozgur Gunduz, and Necdet Sut).  The other good news was that the best medical category poster award went to Kadri Kiran from Trakya University (“Compliance analysis of journals published by Trakya University with principles of transparency and best practice in scholarly publishing”). We believe that participation in this EASE conference contributed to international cooperation between the Balkan editors and the journals.